Posted: 2021-10-13 19:00:00
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-loaded nano-scaled particles that are extracellularly released by eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Parasite's EVs manipulate the immune system, making them probable next-generation vaccines. Schistosomal EVs carry different proteins of promising immunizing potentials. For evaluating the immune-protective role of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) egg-derived EVs against murine schistosomiasis, EVs were isolated from cultured S. mansoni eggs by progressive sequential cooling ultra-centrifugation technique. Isolated EVs were structurally identified using transmission electron microscope and their protein was quantified by Lowry's technique. Experimental mice were subcutaneously immunized with three doses of 20 μg EVs (with or without alum adjuvant); every two weeks, then were challenged with S. mansoni cercariae two weeks after the last immunizing dose. Six weeks post infection, mice were sacrificed for vaccine candidate assessment. EVs protective efficacy was evaluated through parasitological, histopathological, and immunological parameters. Results showed significant reduction of tegumentally deranged adult worms, hepatic and intestinal egg counts reduction by 46.58%, 93.14% and 93.17% respectively, accompanied by remarkable amelioration of sizes, numbers and histopathology of hepatic granulomata mediated by high interferon gamma (IFN γ) and antibody level. Using sera from vaccinated mice, the molecular weight of EVs' protein components targeted by the antibody produced was recognized by western immunoblot. Results revealed two bands of ~ 14 KDa and ~ 21 KDa, proving that EVs are able to stimulate specific antibodies response. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of S. mansoni-egg derived EVs as a potential vaccine candidate against murine schistosomiasis mansoni.
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