Posted: 2021-09-26 19:00:00
The global exploration of snakebites requires the use of quantitative omics approaches to characterize snake venom as it enters into the systemic circulation. These omics approaches give insights into the venom proteome, but a further exploration is warranted to analyze the venom-reactome for the identification of snake venom biomarkers. The recent discovery of extracellular vesicles (EVs), and their critical cellular functions, has presented them as intriguing sources for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. Herein, we purified EV's from the snake venom (svEVs) of Crotalus atrox and C. oreganus helleri, and from plasma of BALB/c mice injected with venom from each snake using EVtrap in conjunction with quantitative mass spectrometry for the proteomic identification and quantification of svEVs and plasma biomarkers. Snake venom EVs from C. atrox and C. o. helleri were highly enriched in 5' nucleosidase, L-amino acid oxidase, and metalloproteinases. In mouse plasma EVs, a bioinformatic analysis for revealed upregulated responses involved with cytochrome P450, lipid metabolism, acute phase inflammation immune, and heat shock responses, while downregulated proteins were associated with mitochondrial electron transport, NADH, TCA, cortical cytoskeleton, reticulum stress, and oxidative reduction. Altogether, this analysis will provide direct evidence for svEVs composition and observation of the physiological changes of an envenomated organism. Keywords: EVtrap; extracellular vesicles; proteomics; snake venom biomarkers.
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