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mRNA Trafficking in the Nervous System: A Key Mechanism of the Involvement of Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein (Arc) in Synaptic Plasticity


Posted: 2021-10-04 19:00:00
Review Neural Plast . 2021 Sep 23;2021:3468795. doi: 10.1155/2021/3468795. eCollection 2021. Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Department of Developmental Neurology and Epileptology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, 93-338 Lodz, Poland. 2 Department of Sciences, University of Girona, 17004 Girona, Spain. 3 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Medical University of Lodz, 92-216 Lodz, Poland. 4 Department of Orthodontics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-217 Lodz, Poland. 5 Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland. Item in Clipboard Review Michal Fila et al. Neural Plast. 2021. Show details Display options Display options Format Neural Plast . 2021 Sep 23;2021:3468795. doi: 10.1155/2021/3468795. eCollection 2021. Affiliations 1 Department of Developmental Neurology and Epileptology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, 93-338 Lodz, Poland. 2 Department of Sciences, University of Girona, 17004 Girona, Spain. 3 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Medical University of Lodz, 92-216 Lodz, Poland. 4 Department of Orthodontics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-217 Lodz, Poland. 5 Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland. Item in Clipboard CiteDisplay options Display options Format Abstract Synaptic activity mediates information storage and memory consolidation in the brain and requires a fast de novo synthesis of mRNAs in the nucleus and proteins in synapses. Intracellular localization of a protein can be achieved by mRNA trafficking and localized translation. Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is a master regulator of synaptic plasticity and plays an important role in controlling large signaling networks implicated in learning, memory consolidation, and behavior. Transcription of the Arc gene may be induced by a short behavioral event, resulting in synaptic activation. Arc mRNA is exported into the cytoplasm and can be trafficked into the dendrite of an activated synapse where it is docked and translated. The structure of Arc is similar to the viral GAG (group-specific antigen) protein, and phylogenic analysis suggests that Arc may originate from the family of Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons. Therefore, Arc might evolve through "domestication" of retroviruses. Arc can form a capsid-like structure that encapsulates a retrovirus-like sentence in the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of Arc mRNA. Such complex can be loaded into extracellular vesicles and transported to other neurons or muscle cells carrying not only genetic information but also regulatory signals within neuronal networks. Therefore, Arc mRNA inter- and intramolecular trafficking is essential for the modulation of synaptic activity required for memory consolidation and cognitive functions. Recent studies with single-molecule imaging in live neurons confirmed and extended the role of Arc mRNA trafficking in synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2021 Michal Fila et al. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest. Publication types [x] Cite Copy Format: Send To [x]

参考サイト PubMed: exsome



バイオクイックニュース日本語版:エクソソーム特集

バイオクイックニュース日本語版
11月 27, 2020 バイオアソシエイツ

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