Modulating poststroke inflammatory mechanisms: Novel aspects of mesenchymal stem cells, extracellular vesicles and microglia


Posted: 2021-09-27 19:00:00
Review World J Stem Cells . 2021 Aug 26;13(8):1030-1048. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v13.i8.1030. Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen 37075, Germany. 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China. 3 Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen 37075, Germany. thorsten.doeppner@med.uni-goettingen.de. Item in Clipboard Review Wen-Qiang Xin et al. World J Stem Cells. 2021. Show details Display options Display options Format World J Stem Cells . 2021 Aug 26;13(8):1030-1048. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v13.i8.1030. Affiliations 1 Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen 37075, Germany. 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China. 3 Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen 37075, Germany. thorsten.doeppner@med.uni-goettingen.de. Item in Clipboard CiteDisplay options Display options Format Abstract Inflammation plays an important role in the pathological process of ischemic stroke, and systemic inflammation affects patient prognosis. As resident immune cells in the brain, microglia are significantly involved in immune defense and tissue repair under various pathological conditions, including cerebral ischemia. Although the differentiation of M1 and M2 microglia is certainly oversimplified, changing the activation state of microglia appears to be an intriguing therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia. Recent evidence indicates that both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate inflammation and modify tissue repair under preclinical stroke conditions. However, the precise mechanisms of these signaling pathways, especially in the context of the mutual interaction between MSCs or MSC-derived EVs and resident microglia, have not been sufficiently unveiled. Hence, this review summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge on MSC- and MSC-EV-mediated regulation of microglial activity under ischemic stroke conditions with respect to various signaling pathways, including cytokines, neurotrophic factors, transcription factors, and microRNAs. Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Ischemic stroke; M2 polarization; Mesenchymal stem cells; Microglial activation. ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict of interest statement Conflict-of-interest statement: Authors declare no conflict of interests for this article. Publication types [x] Cite Copy Format: Send To [x]

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