Posted: 2021-10-11 19:00:00
Immunogenic cell death of tumors, caused by chemotherapy or irradiation, can trigger tumor-specific T cell responses by releasing danger-associated molecular patterns and inducing the production of type I interferon. Immunotherapies, including checkpoint inhibition, primarily rely on preexisting tumor-specific T cells to unfold a therapeutic effect. Thus, synergistic therapeutic approaches that exploit immunogenic cell death as an intrinsic anti-cancer vaccine may improve their responsiveness. However, the spectrum of immunogenic factors released by cells under therapy-induced stress remains incompletely characterized, especially regarding extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs, nano-scale membranous particles emitted from virtually all cells, are considered to facilitate intercellular communication and, in cancer, have been shown to mediate cross-priming against tumor antigens. To assess the immunogenic effect of EVs derived from tumors under various conditions, adaptable, scalable, and valid methods are sought-for. Therefore, herein a relatively easy and robust approach is presented to assess EVs' in vivo immunogenicity. The protocol is based on flow cytometry analysis of splenic T cells after in vivo immunization of mice with EVs, isolated by precipitation-based assays from tumor cell cultures under therapy or steady-state conditions. For example, this work shows that oxaliplatin exposure of B16-OVA murine melanoma cells resulted in the release of immunogenic EVs that can mediate the activation of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T cells. Hence, screening of EVs via in vivo immunization and flow cytometry identifies conditions under which immunogenic EVs can emerge. Identifying conditions of immunogenic EV release provides an essential prerequisite to testing EVs' therapeutic efficacy against cancer and exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms to ultimately unveil new insights into EVs' role in cancer immunology.
Powered by Reisesuchmaschine