Immunomodulatory effects exerted by extracellular vesicles from Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bone-anchored prostheses


Posted: 2021-10-07 19:00:00
Biomaterials . 2021 Sep 28;278:121158. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121158. Online ahead of print. Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 2 Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 3 Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: peter.thomsen@biomaterials.gu.se. Item in Clipboard Magdalena Zaborowska et al. Biomaterials. 2021. Show details Display options Display options Format Biomaterials . 2021 Sep 28;278:121158. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121158. Online ahead of print. Affiliations 1 Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 2 Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 3 Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: peter.thomsen@biomaterials.gu.se. Item in Clipboard CiteDisplay options Display options Format Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the bacteria that most frequently cause osteomyelitis. This study aimed to determine whether staphylococci isolated from osteomyelitis associated with septic loosening of orthopedic prostheses release extracellular vesicles (EVs) and, if so, to determine tentative immunomodulatory effects on the human monocytic cell line THP-1. EVs were isolated from bacterial cultures using filtration and ultracentrifugation and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and Western Blot. The cytotoxic effect of EVs was analyzed by NucleoCounter and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) analyses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was employed to visualize the uptake of EVs by THP-1 cells. Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was determined in THP1-Blue™ NF-κB cells, and the gene expression and secretion of cytokines were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. All investigated strains, irrespective of their biofilm formation ability, were able to secrete EVs in vitro. The S. aureus strains produced significantly more EVs than the S. epidermidis strains. Both S. aureus-derived EVs and S. epidermidis-derived EVs were internalized by THP-1 cells, upregulated Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene expression, activated NF-κB, and promoted the gene expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and IL-10. Whereas EVs from both staphylococcal species upregulated the proapoptotic DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) gene and downregulated the antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene, cytolysis was preferentially induced in S. aureus EV-stimulated cells, possibly related to the expression of cytolytic proteins predominantly in S. aureus EVs. In conclusion, staphylococcal EVs possess potent cytolytic and immunomodulatory properties. Keywords: Biomaterial-associated infection; Chemokines; Cytokines; Cytotoxicity; Extracellular vesicles; Inflammation; Macrophage; Monocyte; Staphylococci; THP-1. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. [x] Cite Copy Format: Send To [x]

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