Posted: 2021-11-06 19:00:00
Free spread is a classical mode for mammalian virus transmission. However, the efficiency of this transmission approach is generally low as there are structural barriers or immunological surveillances in the extracellular environment under physiological conditions. In this study, we systematically analyzed the spreading of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) using multiple viral replication analysis in combination with antibody neutralization, transwell assay, and electron microscopy, and identified an extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated spreading of CSFV in cell cultures. In this approach, intact CSFV virions are enclosed within EVs and transferred into uninfected cells with the movement of EVs, leading to an antibody-resistant infection of the virus. Using fractionation assays, immunostaining, and electron microscopy, we characterized the CSFV-containing EVs and demonstrated that the EVs originated from macroautophagy/autophagy. Taken together, our results showed a new spreading mechanism for CSFV and demonstrated that the EVs in CSFV spreading are closely related to autophagy. These findings shed light on the immune evasion mechanisms of CSFV transmission, as well as new functions of cellular vesicles in virus lifecycles.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; CCK-8: Cell Counting Kit-8; CSF: classical swine fever; CQ: chloroquine; CSFV: classical swine fever virus; DAPI, 4-,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EVs: extracellular vesicles; hpi: h post infection; IEM: immunoelectron microscopy; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MOI: multiplicity of infection; MVs: microvesicles; ND50: half neutralizing dose; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; SEC: size-exclusion chromatography; siRNA: small interfering RNA; TEM: transmission electron microscopy. Keywords: Classical swine fever virus (CSFV); LC3B; extracellular vesicles (EVs); size-exclusion chromatography (SEC); transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
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