Extracellular vesicles in seminal fluid and effects on male reproduction. An overview in farm animals and pets

Posted: 2021-09-24 19:00:00
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer nanovesicles released by most functional cells to body fluids, containing bioactive molecules, mainly proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids having actions at target cells. The EVs have essential functions in cell-to-cell communication by regulating different biological processes in target cells. Fluids from the male reproductive tract, including seminal plasma, contain many extracellular vesicles (sEVs), which have been evaluated to a lesser extent than those of other body fluids, particularly in farm animals and pets. Results from the few studies that have been conducted indicated epithelial cells of the testis, epididymis, ampulla of ductus deferens and many accessory sex glands release sEVs mainly via apocrine mechanisms. The sEVs are morphologically heterogeneous and bind to functional cells of the male reproductive tract, spermatozoa, and cells of the functional tissues of the female reproductive tract after mating or insemination. The sEVs encapsulate proteins and miRNAs that modulate sperm functions and male fertility. The sEVs, therefore, could be important as reproductive biomarkers in breeding sires. Many of the current findings regarding sEV functions, however, need experimental confirmation. Further studies are particularly needed to characterize both membranes and contents of sEVs, as well as the interaction between sEVs and target cells (spermatozoa and functional cells of the internal female reproductive tract). A priority for conducting these studies is development of methods that can be standardized and that are scalable, cost-effective and time-saving for isolation of different subtypes of EVs present in the entire population of sEVs. Keywords: Accessory sex glands; Epididymis; Extracellular vesicles; Livestock species; Pets; Seminal plasma.

参考サイト PubMed: exsome


1月 22, 2019 バイオアソシエイツ


乳癌患者の中には、腫瘍が手術で取り除かれる前に化学療法を受ける人もいる。 ネオアジュバント療法と呼ばれるこのアプローチは、乳房温存手術を容易にするために腫瘍のサイズを縮小するのを助け、外科医が除去するための癌性細胞をほとんどまたは全く残さずに腫瘍を根絶することさえできる。 そのような場合、患者は手術後の生涯に渡り癌のないまま過ごせる可能性が高い。 しかし、すべての腫瘍が化学療法で縮小するわけではない。…

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