Extracellular Vesicles from Human Urine-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Particulate Polyethylene-Induced Osteolysis

Posted: 2021-11-17 20:00:00
Purpose: Wear debris particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis is a severe complication of total joint replacement that results in aseptic loosening and subsequent arthroplasty failure. No effective therapeutic agents or drugs have been approved to prevent or treat osteolysis; thus, revision surgery is often needed. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are vital nanosized regulators of intercellular communication that can be directly applied to promote tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic potential of EVs from human urine-derived stem cells (USCs) (USC-EVs) in preventing ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particle-induced osteolysis. Methods: USCs were characterized by measuring induced multipotent differentiation and flow cytometry. USC-EVs were isolated and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Western blotting. RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured with USC-EVs to verify osteoclast differentiation and osteoblast formation, respectively, in vitro. The effects of USC-EVs were investigated on a UHMWPE particle-induced murine calvarial osteolysis model by assessing bone mass, the inflammatory reaction, and osteoblast and osteoclast formation. Results: USCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic cells in vitro and were positive for CD44, CD73, CD29 and CD90 but negative for CD34 and CD45. USC-EVs exhibited a cup-like morphology with a double-layered membrane structure and were positive for CD63 and TSG101 and negative for calnexin. In vitro, USC-EVs promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and reduced proinflammatory factor production and osteoclastic activity in RAW264.7 cells. In vivo, local injection of USC-EVs around the central sites of the calvaria decreased inflammatory cytokine generation and osteolysis compared with the control groups and significantly increased bone formation. Conclusion: Based on our findings, USC-EVs prevent UHMWPE particle-induced osteolysis by decreasing inflammation, suppressing bone resorption and promoting bone formation. Keywords: UHMWPE; anti-inflammatory; extracellular vesicles; urine-derived stem cells; wear particle-induced osteolysis.

参考サイト PubMed: exsome


9月 06, 2021 バイオアソシエイツ


エクソソームとは、細胞がデリケートな分子を保護し、全身に届けるために作るナノサイズの生体カプセルである(他にも機能がある)。エクソソームは、酵素による分解や、腸や血流中の酸性度や温度の変化にも耐えられる丈夫なカプセルであり、ドラッグデリバリーの候補として期待されている。しかし、臨床レベルの純度を達成するためにエクソソームを採取するのは、複雑なプロセスを要する。バージニア工科大学(VTC)のFralin Biomedical Research Instituteの教授であり、Center for Vascular…

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