Posted: 2022-01-06 20:00:00
Rationale: Mesenchymal stem cell extracellular vesicles (MSC EVs) reverse pulmonary hypertension, but little information is available regarding what dose is effective and how often it needs to be given. This study examined the effects of dose reduction and use of longer dosing intervals and the effect of hypoxic stress of MSC prior to EV collection. Methods: Adult male rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by Sugen 5416 and three weeks of hypoxia (SuHx-pulmonary hypertension) were injected with MSC EV or phosphate buffered saline the day of removal from hypoxia using one of the following protocols: (1) Once daily for three days at doses of 0.2, 1, 5, 20, and 100 µg/kg, (2) Once weekly (100 µg/kg) for five weeks, (3) Once every other week (100 µg/kg) for 10 weeks, (4) Once daily (20 µg/kg) for three days using EV obtained from MSC exposed to 48 h of hypoxia (HxEV) or MSC kept in normoxic conditions (NxEV). Main results: MSC EV reversed increases in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular to left ventricle + septum weight (RV/LV+S), and muscularization index of pulmonary vessels ≤50 µm when given at doses of 20 or 100 μg/kg. RVSP, RV/LV+S, and muscularization index were significantly higher in SuHx-pulmonary hypertension rats treated once weekly with phosphate buffered saline for five weeks or every other week for 10 weeks than in normoxic controls, but not significantly increased in SuHx-pulmonary hypertension rats given MSC EV. Both NxEV and HxEV significantly reduced RVSP, RV/LV+S, and muscularization index, but no differences were seen between treatment groups. Conclusions: MSC EV are effective at reversing SuHx-pulmonary hypertension when given at lower doses and longer dosing intervals than previously reported. Hypoxic stress does not enhance the efficacy of MSC EV at reversing pulmonary hypertension. These findings support the feasibility of MSC EV as a long-term treatment for pulmonary hypertension. Keywords: exosomes; pulmonary vascular remodeling; right ventricular hypertrophy.
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