Posted: 2021-10-13 19:00:00
Background: It is now well established that factors (free or in extracellular vesicles) secreted by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are important mediators of MSC regenerative actions. Herein we produced the secretome (conditioned medium, CM) from MSC isolated from the amniotic membrane (hAMSC) and CM from the intact amniotic membrane (hAM, no manipulation or enzymatic digestion) in order to potentially identify an effective, easy and less expensive secretome to produce for potential applications in regenerative medicine. Given that immunomodulation is a key mechanism of action through which hAMSC contributes to tissue regeneration, we used a comprehensive panel of in vitro immunomodulatory tests to compare the CMs. Methods: Amniotic membranes were either cut into fragments or used for hAMSC isolation. CMs from hAMSC at passages 0 and 2 were collected after a standard 5-day culture while CM from hAM was collected after a 2- and 5-day culture. Immunomodulation was assessed in terms of PBMC and T-cell proliferation, T-cell subset polarization, T-regulatory cell induction, cell cytotoxicity and monocyte differentiation toward antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, we performed a comparison between CM obtained from single donors and pooled CM. We also assessed the impact of lyophilization on the immunomodulatory properties of CM. Results: We demonstrate that CM from hAM has comparable immunomodulatory properties to CM from hAMSC at passages 0 and 2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pooled CMs have similar effects when compared to CM from single donors used separately. Finally, we demonstrate that lyophilization does not alter the in vitro immunomodulatory properties of CM from hAM and hAMSC. Conclusions: The results presented herein support the possibility to produce secretome from intact hAM and open the prospect to highly improve the scalability of the GMP production process while reducing the costs and time related to the process of cell isolation and expansion. Moreover, the possibility of having a lyophilized secretome that maintains its original properties would allow for a ready-to-use product with easier handling, shipping and storage. The use of a lyophilized product will also facilitate clinicians by permitting customized reconstitution volumes and methods according to the most suitable formula required by the clinical application. Keywords: Amniotic membrane; Conditioned medium; Immune functional assays; Immunomodulation; Lyophilization; Secretome.
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